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Science does not have an answer as to why the pancreas stops making insulin, or why when it is produced the body is resistant to it. We do know that a mutant gene handed down from long ago ancestors may be responsible. Other possible causes include:
Physical inactivity
Pancreatic infections
Elevated Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels
You will find that most risk factors responsible for diabetes, also are factors that exist for heart disease.

Diabetes is due to insulin that is either insufficient or ineffective leading to increased blood glucose levels. This leads to symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (excessive thirst). Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas. When glucose levels are elevated, insulin changes glucose into energy that the body can use for fuel.
Inefficient insulin and it's affect on the body:
When insulin is produced but the body fails to use it appropriately, it is said the body is resistant to insulin. A second reaction is when the body does not produce enough insulin to change glucose into energy. In both cases the insulin is inefficient and causes blood glucose levels to rise in the blood.
Is it curable?

Presently no, but there are several exciting and experimental procedures being performed that are showing high success rates. these procedure include;
Pancreatic Transplant: For those with uncontrolled Type 1 DM, but have a functioning kidney. Thankfully, these patients no longer need insulin injections to keep them alive. Additionally, their risks for developing complications associated with diabetes is greatly decreased.
Kidney/Pancreas Transplant: Reserved for patients who have substantial kidney failure, as well as uncontrolled Type 1 diabetes. This surgical procedure allows the patient to be free of dialysis treatments and insulin injections. Patients who avoid rejecting their organs in the first year after surgery, have a greater likelihood of non-rejection for 10 years and more.

Islet Transplants: This procedure is currently in clinical trials and involves replacing the bad Islets Of Langerhans with good islets from a deceased donor. Islets of Langerhans are the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas. The islets are extracted from the donor pancreas and injected into the liver of the receiver. The cells start manufacturing insulin which works to regulate blood sugar levels.
All of these procedures are currently experimental and are not yet approved by the FDA. In a study of 36 patient who received islet transplant, only five remain free of the need for insulin 2 years after their transplant.
The search for better treatments and a cure for diabetes is on-going, and it is hoped that a cure will present itself in the very near future. But until then, lifestyle changes will help those who are living with diabetes to live a long and productive life in spite of having the disease.


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